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                     Livestock sector has been among the few fast growing sectors in rural India, extremely livelihood intensive, with nearly three fourth of the rural households depending on it for supplementary income crucial to their livelihood. This sector employs 8% of the country’s labour force, including small and marginal farmers, women and landless agricultural workers. With a bovine population of 45.75 million, consisting of 25. 66 million cattle and 20.09 million buffaloes (1993 figures), Uttar Pradesh accounts for some 16% of the total bovine population of India. Mainly non-descript (ND) animals (61.0%) and Haryiana and its grades (33.4%) constitute the cattle population. Among buffaloes, 61.3% are Murrah grades and another 38.0% ND. It can be seen from the census figures that the cattle population has marginally decreased while the population of buffaloes has almost doubled.

The state produces 13.55 million mt of milk annually (1998-99 estimate) accounting for over 19% of the total production in the country. Milk production was increasing at an average annual rate of 7.2% over the last 19 years. It can be seen that the major share of this increase was on account of the increase in the number of she buffaloes.

The Department of Animal Husbandry (AHD) is responsible for all the activities relating to livestock production, breeding, health, feed, fodder, sub-sector planning, administration and state policy implementation. The breeding services are provided through artificial insemination (AI) centres numbering to 6471 and conducting little over 30 lakh AI. There are 12 State Livestock Farms, most of which established during pre-independence period, occupying nearly 4400 hectares of land and keeping around 2700 heads of cattle and buffaloes. These farms are expected to produce and supply breeding bulls for AI and natural service in the state.

Six Deep Frozen Semen Stations of the AHD and one of the Pradesh Cooperative Dairy Federation (PCDF) produce frozen semen from around 200 odd bulls belonging to different breeds including buffalo bulls. Around two thirds of the semen requirement of the state are managed by these stations and the balance quantity is purchased from outside sources. Liquid nitrogen (LN) supply is arranged by AHD and PCDF for their respective centres. AHD owns 22 LN plants established during the period from 1978 to 1998, but many of the plants are non-functional for most of the days in the year, forcing the AHD to procure LN from commercial sources. The number of AI centres has increased from 5178 in 1996-97 to 6471 as on March 2000. According to the latest figures 3352 centres are managed by the AHD, 930 by the dairy societies under PCDF, 288 by BAIF, 1715 by AVRY and 186 under the para-vet scheme of UP-DASP. These centres together conducted 3.01 million AI during 1998-99.

The Government of UP has formulated in 1993 a policy for breeding of cattle and buffaloes in the state. However, difficulties were often experienced to implement the policy since comprehensive breeding plans and operations as well as adequate resources to achieve the objectives were missed.

As part of the efforts to intensify the breeding services in the state several agencies were formed during recent years. The most important among them was the UP Livestock Development Board (UP-LDB), though this organisation is yet to take over the functions and activities for which it has been formed. In the meantime, the AHD has constituted a State Advisory Committee for Livestock Breeding (SACLB) to advise the government on breeding related issues. Furthermore, a Breeding Cell to monitor breeding activities and Local Breed Management Committees to oversee conservation and development of indigenous breeds have been set up.

Under the lead of the breeding cell a programme for cattle and buffalo breeding in UP has been prepared. Highlights and salient features of these proposed breeding programme are summarised as follows:

Breeding Aim

bulletTo increase milk production of cattle and buffaloes
bulletTo ensure availability of good quality animals for draft purpose
bulletTo conserve indigenous breeds of cattle and buffalo

General Consideration

bulletCrossbreeding with exotic breeds is recognised as major strategy to increase milk production in cattle, while upgrading towards Murrah is state of the art in buffalo development.
bulletArtificial insemination using deep frozen semen is the tool to accelerate the genetic make-up of the cattle and buffalo population.
bulletActive interventions to improve the stock of draft animals are combined with efforts to conserve and develop indigenous breeds.
bulletCrossbreeding and upgrading may not be possible in every prevailing livestock production system of the state. Regional and location specific features, such as climatic conditions, feed and fodder availability, livestock management practices and market potential/facilities for livestock produce, have to be taken into account, while proposing breeding interventions.
bulletDespite all efforts to propagate AI, more than half of the bovine population continues to be bred through natural service (NS). Making available good quality breeding bulls for NS is a means to improve the bovine population in non-AI areas.
bulletBreed conservation, though formulated as an aim of its own, is to be seen in the context of a prevailing farming system and of the competitiveness of the indigenous breed. Keeping a particular livestock breed must be feasible and particularly viable for the farmer.

Strategy and Approach

  1. For milk purpose, non-descript cattle are crossed with exotic breeds of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Jersey (purebred and crossbred HF and Jersey bulls).
  2. For draft and dual purpose (milk/draft), ND cattle are improved with recognised indigenous breeds of the area, e.g. Haryiana.
  3. For crossbreeding, HF is the major exotic breed, while Jersey is used in less resource full areas and in high altitude areas of the state with comparatively smaller size ND cattle.
  4. The level of exotic inheritance in crossbreds shall be 50 %. Therefore, female crossbred offspring produced through crossing of ND with exotic breeds are to be mated with crossbred bulls of 50 % exotic inheritance.
  5. Scientific genetic selection programmes are adopted and installed to procure breeding bulls of high genetic value.
  6. Crossbred bulls are obtained from bull mother farms through nominated mating and from areas in the field with field performance programmes. In case of shortage, crossbred bulls shall be procured from outside the State.
  7. Sahiwal and Haryiana breed are used as the indigenous partners to produce the first generation (F1) of crossbred breeding bulls. Afterwards, crossbred bulls are produced through inter-se mating of the crossbred population is adopted.
  8. . Murrah is used as the breed for buffalo herd improvement through upgrading. Murrah bulls are produced on bull mother farms as well as procured from farmer’s field within the state and from sources outside.
  9. Progeny testing programmes are to be started for the selection of breeding bulls of all the genetic groups (cattle and buffaloes).
  10. Bulls of accepted quality, but not required for semen production, are to be disseminated for NS in areas with no or low AI coverage.
  11. Indigenous breeds like Sahiwal and Haryiana cattle and Bhadawari buffalo are brought under a breed conservation and development programme. At a later stage, other breeds may be included in this programme.

Summary Statement of the Proposed Breeding Policy:

 

FIRST CROSSING

SUBSEQUENT CROSSING

METHOD

BULLS

Target population

BULLS

Target population

CATTLE

HF

Haryiana

HF*Har

Crossbred

Crossbreeding and selection

Jersey

Haryiana

JY*Har

Crossbred

HF

Non-descript

HF*Sah

Crossbred

Jersey

Non-descript

JY*Sah

Crossbred

Sahiwal

Sahiwal

Sah.

Sahiwal

Pure breeding

Haryiana

Haryiana

Haryiana

Haryiana

Pure breeding

BUF

Bhad.

Bhadawari

Bhad.

Bhadawari

Pure breeding

Murrah

ND & Murrah

Murrah

Murrah grades

Grading up

The details of flow of genes from one generation to the next are explained in the chapter on breeding schemes.

Proposed breeding plans, which have been worked out separately for the different sub-populations, quantify the requirement of breeding inputs over a period of five years. The basis of the calculation is given in the annexure. The summary in terms of expected numbers of AI, number of bulls under semen collection and required number of bulls to be replaced every year is given below.

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Total AI lakh 36.6 42.1 42.9 44.9 46.1
Bulls in collection 188 245 285 331 431
Bulls to be replaced/year 39 47 49 55 66

The chapter on breeding operations describes the major activities to be taken up for the successful grounding of the breeding programme. The most important among them is the establishment of an autonomous body for the over all implementation of t88he breeding operations in a scientific and efficient manner. Such an organisation shall be provided with optimum infrastructure, human resource and finance.

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